Performance of Vegetative Filter Strips with Varying Pollutant Source and Filter Strip Lengths
Transactions of the ASAE , 39 , 1996
Srivastava, P., Edwards, D.R., Daniel, T.C., Moore, P.A., Costello, T.A.
Vegetative filter strips (VFS) can reduce runoff losses of pollutants such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from land areas treated with fertilizers. While VFS effectiveness is considered to depend on lengths of pollutant source and VFS areas, there is little experimental evidence of this dependence, particularly when the pollutant source is manure-treated pasture. This study assessed the effects of pollutant source area (fescue pasture treated with poultry litter) length and VFS (fescue pasture) length on VFS removal of nitrate N (NO3-N), ammonia N (NH3-N), total Kjeldahl N (TKN), ortho-P (PO4-P), total P (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), and fecal coliform (FC) from incoming runoff. This research examined poultry litter-treated lengths of 6.1, 12.2, and 18.3 m, with corresponding VFS lengths of up to 18.3 m, 12.2 m, and 6.1 m, respectively. Runoff was produced from simulated rainfall applied to both the litter-treated and VFS areas at 50 mm/h for 1 h of runoff. Pollutant concentrations in runoff were unaffected by litter-treated length but demonstrated a first-order exponential decline with increasing VFS length except for TSS and FC. Runoff mass transport of NH3-N,TKN, PO4-P, TP and TOC increased with increasing litter-treated length (due to increased runoff) and decreased (approximately first-order exponential decline) with increasing VFS length when affected by VFS length. Effectiveness of the VFS in terms of NH3-N, TKN, PO4-P, TP and TOC removal from runoff ranged from 12-75, 22-67, 22-82, 21-66, and 8-30% respectively. The data from this study can help in developing and testing models that simulate VFS performance and thus aid in the design of VFS installed downslope of pasture areas treated with animal manure.