Environmentally & Socially Development Unit Europe and Central Asia The World Bank Washington, D.C. , 2003

Cestti, R., Srivastava, J., Jung, S.

Over the last decades the quality of the Black Sea waters has deteriorated, resulting in economic losses from declines in the fishing industry and in tourism, loss of biodiversity and health impacts from contaminated water. This deterioration has been caused by many factors including nutrient run-off from agriculture, insufficiently treated sewage, conversion of wetlands, coastal erosion, introduction of exotic species, eutrophication and inadequate resource management. One of the most significant sources of degradation has been from run off of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds (nutrients), as a result of agricultural, domestic and industrial activities. To address the problem of excessive nutrient discharge to the Black Sea, the Global Environment Fund (GEF) has established the “Strategic Partnership Program on the Black Sea and Danube Basin” with cooperation from the World Bank (WB), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), other financiers and the basin countries. Under this partnership, a number of Black Sea riparian countries are preparing or implementing projects that aim to reduce nutrient load to the Black Sea from agricultural sources. To assist them in their efforts the World Bank has developed this paper on good management practices to control non point source pollution from agriculture. The paper is based on U.S. experiences in the Chesapeake Bay watershed which faces similar problems.