NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES
Nonpoint, or diffuse, sources of water pollution include urban sources such as runoff from residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and recreational land uses; construction activities; and onsite sewage disposal systems and rural sources such as runoff from cropland, pasture, and woodland, atmospheric contributions, and livestock wastes. These sources of pollutants discharge to surface waters by direct overland drainage, by drainage through natural channels, by drainage through engineered stormwater drainage systems, and by deep percolation into the ground and subsequent return flow to the surface waters. A summary of the methods and estimated effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control measures is set forth in Table G-1. These measures have been grouped for planning purposes into two categories: basic practices and additional. Application of the basic practices will have a variable effectiveness in terms of control level of pollution control depending upon the subwatershed area characteristics and the pollutant considered. The additional category of nonpoint source control measures has been subdivided into four subcategories based upon the relative effectiveness and costs of the measures. The first subcategory of practices can be expected to result generally in about a 25 percent reduction in pollutant runoff. The second and third subcategory of practices, when applied in combination with the minimum and additional practices, can be expected to generally result in up to a 75 percent reduction in pollutant runoff, respectively. The fourth subcategory would consist of all of the preceding practices, plus those additional practices that would be required to achieve a reduction in ultimate runoff of more than 75 percent.